Dec
14
2012

Hog/Swine Business: Record Keeping

Keeping a record for finishers is necessary in monitoring growth performance. Many recording systems are develop by farmers, pig breeding companies, feed milling companies, universities, colleges and other institutions. Most of them are readily available and range from very simple and precise, and e directed towards improving performance and profit.

The most important question that must be answered in record keeping is: What data should be collected? Sometimes the data collected are never utilized. But keep in mind that keeping records and not using them is as bad as not keeping records at all.

Before making a record, recognition or identification of the animals is very important. Some of the methods than can be used in creating an identity are: tattoo, plastic ear tags, and ear piercing.

Ear-nothing – cutting the ears following an ear match guide using ear notcher is discourage because it inflict injury to the animal.

Important Data to Collect

  • Origin
  • Number of pig
  • Starting date
  • Average starting weight
  • Piglet cost
  • Total feed consumption/daily feed intake
  • Price per kilogram of feed
  • Total weight of pig delivered + price per kg Live weight (LW)
  • Delivery date
  • Mortality

Technical Figures (based on 2000 data)

Use of technical figures helps in assessing the performance of the pig enterprise.

  • Average Daily Gain (ADG)
  • Feed Conversion Ration (FCR)
  • Average Feed Consumption/Pig/Day
  • Average Feed Cost/Kilogram Gain
  • Average Feed Cost/Pig/Day
  • Mortality
  • Feed Profit
  • Rounds Per Year

Average Daily Gain (ADG)

The average daily gain is expressed as the average daily increase in the Hveweight during the finishing period. ADG affects various aspects like:

  • Finishing period – the higher the ADG, the shorter the finishing period
  • Different costs e.g. housing, feeds, labor
  • Number of pigs sold per year

Factors affecting ADG

  • Quality of feed
  • Quantity of feed
  • Quantity/genotype of the pigs (genetic background)
  • Health condition of the pigs
  • Stage of finishing

Date needed for the computation of ADG:

  • Starting weight – this is usually at 15 to 20 kg LW
  • Market/end weight – usually from 80 to 90 kg LW
  • Finishing days

ADG = Total weight gained / Number of finishing days * 1000

where: Total weight gained = Market weight – starting weight

Sample calculation:

  • Number of finishers = 100 heads
  • Starting weight = 29 kg LW
  • Starting date = 29 June 2000
  • Market weight = 85 kg LW on the average
  • Market dates (1st batch) = 60 heads, 18 Oct 2000
  • Market dates (2nd batch) = 40 heads, 25 Oct 2000

ADG = (100 heads x 85kg LW) – (100 heads x 20 kg LW) / (60 heads x 112 days) + (40 heads x 119 days) x 1000

ADG = 566 grams/day

Based on standard figures, ADG should always be >= 600 grams/day to be acceptable.

Feed Conversion Ration (FCR)

The amount of feed given , from the start of finishing until the pigs are marketed is needed in the computation of FCR.

FCR measures the efficiency of feed utilization. It tells us how many kilograms of feed is needed for one kilogram gain in weight. If “normal concentrates” are given, the calculated FCR gives a good indication whether the fattening process is going satisfactorily or not.

Factors Affecting FCR

  • Quality of feed given
  • Quantity of feed given (restricted/ad libitum)
  • Breed of the pig
  • Management and health condition of the animals
  • Sex of the pig (male, female, castrate)
  • Stage of finishing

FCR = Total amount of feeds given / Total weight gained x 1000

Sample calculation:

  • Number of finishers = 100 heads
  • Starting weight = 20 kg LW
  • Market weight = 85 kg LW
  • Feed given in kg = 1,8102 kg

FCR = 18,102 kg feeds / (100 heads x 85kg LW) – (100 heads x 20 kg LW)
FCR = 18,102 kg feeds / 6,500 kg weight gained
FCR = 2.78 (This means that the pig needs 2.78 kg of feed to convert into 1 kg gain in weight.)

Average Feed Consumption/Pig/Day

This Is an assessment of the level of feeding of the finishing pigs- This b Important especially when ADG and FCR fail to be in the target range, the average feed consumption/pig/day may provide an indication of the possible causes.

Indications

  • Average feeding level with poor ADG and FCR oftentimes point to poor quality feeds and/or management aspects (health, housing, ventilation).
  • Low feeding level generally leads to poor ADG and FCR. Thus, a low feed consumption per day is caused by low palatability and poor management practices.
  • When the feed consumption per day is too high compared to the ADG obtained, disorders In the digestive system, poor digestability of the feeds or tow nutritional value are likely to be the cause. A high feeding level may also cause a relatively high fat disposition, which usually leads to an average ADG but poor FCR.

Feed consumption/pig/day = Total feed consumption / Total finishing days

Sample calculation:

  • Total feed consumption = 18,102 kg
  • Total finishing days = 11,480 days

Feed consumption/pig/day = 18,102 kg / 11,480 days finishing days
Feed consumption/pig/day= 1.58 kg/pig/day

For pigs finished from 20 to 90 kgs., the average consumption ranges from 1.7 to 2.0 kgs/pig/day for restricted feeding and 1.9 to 2.1 kgs for ad libitum feeding.

Average Feed Cost/Kilogram Gain

This can be a useful information in comparing several feeds and/or non-conventional feeds or feeds with different prices. Together with ADG, it indicates the value of the feeds compared to the quality.

Feed cost/kg gain = Total feed cost / Gain in weight

Sample calculation

  • Gain in wt: 8500 kg LW – 2000 kg LW = 6,500 kg gain
  • Starter feed: P 13/kg x 3570 kgs = P 46,410.00
  • Grower feed: P 11.00/kg x 9240 kgs =101,640.00
  • Finisher feed: P 10.50/kg x 5992 kgs = 62,916.00
  • Total P210,116.00

Mortality

Another aim in finisher production is to Incur the lowest possible mortality. Therefore, h is important to determine the cost of mortality to assess how much was lost.

Mortality percentage = Number of dead pigs per batch / Total number of pigs per batch

Sample calculation:

  • Number of pig/batch – 100 pigs
  • Number of dead pigs – 3

Mortality % = 3 dead pigs / 100 pigs x 100
Mortality = 3% (This figure is needed in computing the cost mortality or financial loss)

Cost of mortality = number of pigs x (cost of 1 weaner + 1/2 feed cost per pig)

Sample calculation:

  • Number of dead pigs – 3
  • Cost of weaner (20 kg LW) – P1,850.00
  • Cost of feed/finisher – P2,036.10

Cost of mortality = 3 dead pigs [P1,850.00 + 1/2 (P2,036.10)]
Cost of mortality = P8,604.15

Feed Profit

In computing the feed profit, only two main expenses are considered: cost of feeds and weaners. These two expenses generally account to 85-90% of the total cost thus, assessment of the net profit is made easy.

Feed Profit = Proceeds/or sale of finishers – (Total cost of weaners + Total cost of feeds)

Sample calculation:

  • Selling price/finisher: 85 kg LW x 55 = P4,675.00
  • Total Proceeds: P4,675 x 97 market pigs = P453,475.00
  • Total cost of feed: P2,036.10 x 100 pigs = P203,610.00
  • Total cost of weaners: P1,850.00 x 100 pigs = P185,000.00

Feed Profit = P453,475.00 – (P203,610 + 185,000)
Feed Profit = P64,865.00

Feed Profit/pig sold = P64,865.00/97 pigs
Feed Profit/pig sold = P668.71

Rounds Per Year

Rounds per year refers to the efficiency with which the capacity of the finishing units are used. Factors affecting the number of rounds per year:

  • growth rate (ADG)
  • prevailing liveweights at start and marketing
  • inter-batch periods for cleaning, disinfection, and restocking
  • stocking system

The capacity of the units can be expressed either as number of pig places or as the average number of pigs on hand (stock). The number of pig places is fixed while the average stock vary depending on.

  • occupancy rate of the units/pens
  • mortality rate
  • inter-batch periods (the time lapse between delivery of slaughter pigs and arrival of the next batch of weaners)
  • stocking system

Rounds per year = 365 x ADG in kgs / Avg. weight increase of marketed pig

Sample calculation:

  • Average Daily Gain = 566 grams or 0.556 kg
  • Average weight increase = 65 kg

Rounds per year = 365 x 0.566 / 65 kg
Rounds per year = 3.17 rounds (This means that 3 complete finishing rounds in a year can be done!)

source: International Training Center on Pig Husbandry (ITCPH), Marawoy, Lipa City

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