Jun
11
2013

Growing Grapes in the Philippines, Growing Management

Fertilizer Application

Determine the nutrient status of the soil with the help of the soil analyst and apply the necessary kind of the fertilizer. Nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus are essential to the growth of the grapes, as well as the small quantities of zinc, magnesium, iron and manganese. Apply these in regular intervals and in small doses.

A more specific method of applying these would be as follows:

Two weeks after planting, dissolve 12 grams of 45-0-0 (nitrogen) in 1 1/2 liters of water and pour into the soil around the plant base. Apply the same amount every 15 days until the third month.

From the forth to the ninth month, apply 40 grams of 45-0-0 (nitrogen) fertilizer and 30 grams of 14-14-14 complete (nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium) fertilizer every month. Mix these with the soil 15 cm away from the plant base.

Ten to eleven months after planting, apply 100 grams of 45- 0-0 (nitrogen) fertilizer plus 80 grams of 14-14-14 complete fertilizer once a month, around the plant base. After 12 months apply 135 grams of 45-0-0 plus 135 grams of complete fertilizer in the same manner.

During the fruit-bearing stage, steps in applying fertilizer are as follows:

Growth Stage / Fertilizer / Manner of Application:

  1. Pruning time / 100-125 grams of 16-0-0 +100 -125 grams of complete fertilizer/ Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  2. Fruiting /100-125 grams of 45-0-0 + 100-125 grams of base complete fertilizer / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant
  3. Change in fruit color / 200-250 grams of 0-0-60 / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  4. After harvest / 250-300 grams of 14-14-14 / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  5. Rest period of one to two months / 250-300 grams of 14-14-14 / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  6. 1-2 weeks after second pruning / 100-125 grams of 16-20-0 + 100-125 grams of complete fertilizer / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  7. Second fruiting 100-125 grams of 45-0-0 + 100 -125 grams of complete fertilizer/ Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  8. Change in fruit color / 300-500 grams of 0-0-60 / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  9. After harvest / 250-300 grams of 14-14-14 / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base
  10. Rest period of one to two months / 250-300 grams of 14-14-14 / Mix with the soil 30-60 cm away from the plant base

Pest and Disease Control

The downy mildew disease is characterized by yellow and brown spots on the leaves and fruits causing the leaves to wilt and fall. Spray infected vines with Grape fun fungicide, Dithane M-45 or Manzate D before and after flower blooming stage. Repeat application after 7 to 10 days, following the manufacturer’s recommendation.

The anthracnose or bird’s eye rot disease will cause leaves to have dark color margins. Treat the vines with the following fungicides: Grapefun, Dithane, M-45, Manzate D, Orthocide 50 or Phaltan as a control measure before infection start. Repeat application after 7 to 10 days.

When fruits are infected with light-colored spots, spray the vines after fruits have emerged with Orthocide 50, Captan or Captex. Spray again after 7 to 10 days.

The powdery mildew disease which is prevalent during the dry season results in cobweb-like white patches on the vines, which later become dark brown in color. Spray the vines with Karothane 25 (wp) 2 to 3 times before the flowering stage and a week after. Some cultivars, however sensitive to this fungicide.

Mature plants susceptible to rust which are small, yellow and rust-coloredspots on the leaves. Remove all infected leaves and spray the underside of the rest of the leaves with Grapefun, Dithane M-45 or Manzate D. Repeat application 7 to 10 days later.

During the rainy season when plants are more susceptible to disease, it is best to spray fungicides regularly as a preventive measure.

For pest control, follow this procedure:

Pest Description / Pesticide:

  • Mites Extract plant sap causing the vines to grow stunded / Spray with Azodrin 168 EC, Kethane 18.5 EC, Endosulfan 35 EC, or Dursban EC every 7 days. Stop application 7 days before harvest. Follow manufacturer’s dosage.
  • Scale Cause vines to insects become scaly or flaky white / Azodrin 168 EC, Endosulfan, Malathion, or Diazinon. Application same as above.
  • Meanly Results in sooty folance of leaves, shoots and canes; bugs and sticky appear shriveling /
  • Azodrin 168 EC, Thiodan, low above dosage – Malathion or Diazinon.
  • Vinegar fly Thrives on the fruit / Malathion or Diazinon
  • Cutworms Caterpillars feeds on the leaves and fruits / Dursban EC, Sevin 85
  • Grape flea Feed on the leaves or beetles buds / Azodrin 168 EC, Thiodan, Dursban EC (manufacturer’s dosage)
  • Leafhoppers Cause white specks and yellow blotches / Azodrin 168 EC, Thiodan, Endosulfan, or Dursban EC. Application according to manufacturer’s recommendation
  • Prevent birds and bats from feeding on fruit by covering fruit cluster with perforated materials paper bags. Do this before fruits have change color.
  • Inspect the vineyard regularly for pest and diseases. Cultivate regularly to control weeds.

Harvest

After barriers and fruit stalks have change color, taste the fruit near the tip of each bunch to determine whether it is ready for harvest. If it tastes sweet, the whole cluster is ready for picking. Harvest by hand with the aid of the sharp shear early in the morning. Include the length of the fruit stalk to facilitate handling.

Keep harvested fruits from being exposed to the sun. Trim, grade and pack them immediately. Sort them according to size and handle carefully to avoid bruising.

Planting Tips and Maintenance

  1. Plow and clean the field for planting.
  2. Remove the plant from the nursery pot and place in the prepared holes for planting about 3-4 meters apart, row by row.
  3. If the seedling comes from a (rooted) branch, do not let this branch touch the soil so that it will not grow roots.
  4. At first, cover the new plant with coconut leaves or banana leaves.
  5. Prepare the trellis.
  6. Apply fertilizer — animal manure: (pig, chicken), decomposed leaves etc.
  7. When the stem becomes brown and a new shoot grows and the leaves become mature, it is good to prune the branch.
    • It is good to do this at the onset of Summer so that the flowers will become fruits and ripen, if sunshine is abundant. Harvest can be had in 3-4 months after pruning. Prune again 4-6 weeks after harvesting. Pruning is done 2-3 times a year, depending on the rain and variety of the grape plant. Reducing of branches is done to make the fruits grow well and large — January, April and June.
  8. Remove the growing shoots at the base of the plant or under soil. Do this in the first 4-5 years of the plant.
  9. Counteract the insect pests or worms by spraying Brodan or Planters Malathion.
  10. Drive away the birds that feed on the grapes by using a scarecrow.
  11. Control molds with fungicide about 2 times a week if the weather is humid.

For longer shelf life of the harvested grapes:

  1. Harvest only when the sun (day) is cool.
  2. Take care not to hurt the fruits when handling.
  3. Do not expose them to the heat of the sun.
  4. If possible, smoke first the fruits before transporting.

Read Part 1

For more information contact:

DOST Bldg. Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig, Metro Manila
Telephone Nos: (632) 837-20-71 to 82
Fax: (632) 837-8937

DOST – Regional Office No. 10
J. V. Seri St., Carmen, Cagayan de Oro City
Telefax: (088) 858-3931 to 33; (63) (8822) 72-38-02
Email: rd:aca10@dost.gov.ph; webadmin:ruel_vince@yahoo.com

Province of Sorsogon
Capitol Building, Sorsogon City
Tel No. (056) 211 – 1319
Email: ppdo_sor@yahoo.com

source: elgu2.ncc.gov.ph, region10.dost.gov.ph

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4 Comments + Add Comment

  • What’s the best grape variety to grow here in the philippines?

    • white malaga is one the prolific fruiting vine in the phils…in regardless of the market

  • The article is good. I just need more detailed information on the financial aspect. Cost of production and projected income.

    • Good day…

      Financial Aspect please contact me…09306383745 and email add: ryelee20bye@gmail.com

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